초록

창의성은 독창적이고 유용한 아이디어를 산출할 수 있는 능력을 말한다. 현대 사회의 많은 문제들을 해결하고 인류의 복지를 증진시키기 위해 창의성의 기전을 이해하고 이를 증진할 수 있는 방안에 대한 연구는 매우 중요하다. 창의성은 매우 이질적이고 복합적인 능력으로서 이를 하나의 능력으로 개념화하는 것은 적절하지 않다. 따라서 학계에서는 창의성의 개별 구성 요소를 중심으로 창의성의 기전에 대한 연구가 활발하게 이루어지고 있다. 본 개관 연구에서는 창의성의 주요한 구성 요소인 확산적 사고, 통찰, 관계적 사고 그리고 예술적 창의성에 대한 인지신경과학 연구들을 소개한다. 여러 연구 결과를 종합적으로 고려한 결과, 창의성의 인지신경학적 기전과 관련하여 우반구가 좌반구보다 우세하다는 가설은 실험적 증거에 의해 지지되지 않았다. 또한, 창의성과 관련하여 특정 뇌 영역의 중요성이 일관되게 보고되고 있지 않으며, 다양한 뇌 영역의 활동성이 창의성과 관계된다는 연구 결과가 혼재하고 있다. 이러한 상이한 연구 결과가 관찰되는 이유는 창의성의 각 구성 요소의 이질성 뿐 아니라, 연구에 사용된 과제의 특수성과 과제에 의해 유발된 인지적 전략의 차이에 의해 뇌 활동이 달라지기 때문인 것으로 해석할 수 있다. 본 개관 연구에서는 창의성의 요소 별 뇌기반과 창의성의 증진에 대하여 우수한 연구 방법을 사용하여 탁월한 연구 성과를 이룬 대표적인 사례들을 소개하고 현행 연구들의 제한점과 후속 연구의 방향을 제시한다.

키워드

창의성, 확산적 사고, 통찰, 관계적 사고, 예술성, 부화 효과, 인지적 자극, 창의성의 증진, 경두개 직류 전기 자극

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