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Background: The number of claims of Industrial Accidents Compensation Insurance (IACI) for mental illness has increased. In particular, the approval rate was higher in cases with confirmed incident circumstances such as adjustment disorder, acute stress disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. With increased numbers of filed IACI applications and their approval rates, the need to evaluate various work-related incidents and stressors consistently is also increasing. Method: In January 2015–December 2017, among the cases of industrial accidents filed for mental illness and suicide by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service, 76 filed or approved adjustment disorder cases were included. The cases of adjustment disorder were applied in this study to the “Criteria for Recognition of Mental Disorders by Psychological Loads” established in Japan in 2011 and investigated if cases were approved/rejected consistently. Additionally, features with the greatest influence on approval/rejection were examined quantitatively. Results: The number of applications more than doubled from 2015 to 2017, with the approval rate rising from 66.7% to 90.6%. Among the major categories, applications of adjustment disorder related to “interpersonal relationships” were the largest number of applications. Applications related to “sexual harassment”, “interpersonal relationships”, and “accidents and experiences including fires” showed relatively higher approval rate. The approval rate was the lowest in the case of “change in the amount and quality of work.” Conclusions: Approved cases tend to have special precedents and strong intensity. The main reasons for the rejection were that there were no special precedents and that the intensity of the case was weak. These 2 were the most important factors in determining approval/rejection.