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Seismic fragility was assessed for non-seismic reinforced concrete shear walls in Korean high-rise apartment buildings in order to implement an earthquake damage prediction system. Seismic hazard was defined with an earthquake scenario, in which ground motion intensity was varied with respect to prescribed seismic center distances given an earthquake magnitude. Ground motion response spectra were computed using Korean ground motion attenuation equations to match accelerograms. Seismic fragility functions were developed using nonlinear static and dynamic analysis for comparison. Differences in seismic fragility between damage state criteria including inter-story drifts and the performance of individual structural members were investigated. The analyzed building had an exceptionally long period for the fundamental mode in the longitudinal direction and corresponding contribution of higher modes because of a prominently insufficient wall quantity in such direction. The results showed that nonlinear static analyses based on a single mode tend to underestimate structural damage. Moreover, detailed assessments of structural members are recommended for seismic fragility assessment of a relatively low performance level such as collapse prevention. On the other hand, inter-story drift is a more appropriate criterion for a relatively high performance level such as immediate occupancy.