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This is the first study to establish a complete protocol for micropropagation of Rehmannia glutinosa from root segments. The study involved investigating the effect of plant growth regulators on in vitro shoot regeneration and rooting and identifying substrates supporting survival and growth performance of ex vitro seedlings. A Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 30 g/L sucrose for shoot induction and 0.2 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), and 1 g/L polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) for shoot multiplication resulted in the highest number of shoots per explant and shoot height. Applying a medium containing 0.5 mg/L IAA and 1 g/L PVP yielded optimal rooting of the shoots grown in vitro. Compost enriched with microbial inoculants and perlite enhanced seedling growth better than that with organic biofertilizer-free substrates (soil and sand). We recommend the continuous production of micropropagated R. glutinosa seedlings from root segments under the aforementioned conditions as a possible propagation technique for crops of this species.