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진휼은 재해 구호와 빈민 구제를 목적으로 하는 행위를 가리킨다. 재해 구호는 진급, 각종 구호, 조세 감면, 안무(순무)의 4가지와 고구려의 진대법으로, 빈민 구제는 진급, 각종 구호, 조세 감면, 안무(순무), 생활 보호의 5가지로 구분할 수 있었다. 고대 중국의 진급, 진대, 의창, 기타 창고 등을 검토한 결과, 어떠한 방식이건 간에 정규의 조세와 같은 안정된 재원을 확보하고, 지출이 증가할 때 다른 재정으로의 전용을 방지하며, 안정적인 운영을 위해 장기간 창고에 보관할 필요가 있었다. 실시 여부의 결정권이 지방보다는 중앙에 있었던 것도 특징이었다. 고대 일본의 진급, 의창 등을 검토한 결과, 진급에 두 종류가 있어서 재해 구호의 측면은 의창과 중복되었는데, 실시 여부의 결정권이 지방에 있었던 것이 특징이었다. 삼국의 경우 식량 형태의 조세는 비중이 적었고, 진휼할 때 창고의 출납 권한은 중앙정부에 있었다. 이에 따라 식량 형태의 조세가 군량 등의 용도로 전용되기도 하고, 진휼할 때 신속히 대응하기 위하여 사자 파견이 자주 이루어졌다. 진대는 제도로서 유지되더라도 상시적으로 실시되기 어려웠을 것이며, 진휼의 재원 마련이나 운영에는 많은 어려움이 있었다고 추정되었다.


Relief(賑恤) refers to actions aimed at disaster aid and help for the poor. The disaster aid was divided into five types: free support(賑給), various aids, taxation reduction, consolation(按撫), and Goguryeo’s interest-free loan system(賑貸法). The help for poor was divided into five types: free support, various aids, taxation reduction, consolation, and livelihood protection. As a result of reviewing the free support, interest-free loan, relief warehouse(義倉), and other warehouses of ancient China, it is confirmed that long term storage was necessary to secure stable resources in any way such as regular taxation, prevent appropriation to other finances when spending increases, and to operate stably. Another characteristic was that the central government rather than the provincial government had the right to decide whether to expense or not. According to a review of the free support and relief warehouse of ancient Japan, there were two types of free support, so the aspect of disaster aid overlapped with the relief warehouse, which was characterized by the local authority to decide whether to expense or not. In the case of the three kingdoms, the taxation in the form of food was small, and the central government had the authority to receive and disburse the warehouse when relief was carried out. As a result, the taxation in the form of food was diverted to military purposes, and the dispatch of envoys was frequently carried out to respond quickly in times of relief. It was estimated that the interest-free loan was difficult to carry out on a regular basis even if it was maintained as a system, and that there were many difficulties in raising and operating funds for relief.