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본 연구는 학령기 자녀를 둔 여성한부모의 자녀양육어려움에 미치는 영향을 빈곤심도와 다차원적 요인별로 검증하고, 빈곤지위에 따라 자녀양육어려움에 미치는 영향 요인을 비교⋅예측하는데 목적이 있다. 분석을 위해 한국여성정책연구원과 여성가족부가 실시한 ‘2018년 한부모가족 실태조사’ 마이크로데이터를 이용하였으며 이중 학령기 자녀를 둔 여성한부모 1,356명의자료를 활용하였다. 분석 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 연구대상자의 절반(50.36%)이 빈곤층에속했으며 비빈곤층 대비 일반빈곤층의 경우 자녀양육어려움이 높게 나타났다. 둘째, 요인별 영향요인 분석 결과, 개인요인에서는 우울(+), 가족요인에서는 자녀홀로 보내는 시간(+), 환경요인에서는 본인이 차별받은 경험(+)과 주거환경(월세<자가), 일자리요인에서는 근로시간(+)과 종사상지위(자영업자 및 무급가족 종사자<상용근로자)가 자녀양육어려움을 예측하는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 빈곤층과 비빈곤층의 자녀양육어려움 영향 요인을 대조한 결과, 두 집단 모두 우울(+), 자녀홀로 보내는 시간(+), 본인이 차별 받은 경험(+)이 자녀양육어려움에 영향을 미친 것으로 나타났다. 반면, 비빈곤 집단에서는 학력(대졸이상<고졸), 주거환경(월세<자가), 도움받을 수있는 기관 혹은 사람 수(-), 종사상지위(임시 및 일용근로자, 자영업자 및 무급가족봉사자<상용근로자), 근로시간(+)이 영향요인으로 나타났으나 빈곤집단에서는 유의미하지 않게 나타났다. 추가적으로 빈곤집단에서는 가구원수(+)가 유의미한 영향요인으로 밝혀졌다. 본 연구에서는 이러한 연구 결과를 기반으로 여성한부모의 빈곤과 자녀양육어려움을 완화할 수 있는 실천적⋅정책적 방안을 제시하였다.


The purpose of this study is to verify the impact on the child-rearing difficulty of single-parent families with school-age children by poverty severity and multi-dimensional factors, also to predict and compare factors affecting child-rearing difficulty by poverty status. For the analysis, Micro Data of the ‘2018 Single-parent Family Survey’ conducted by the Korea Women’s Development Institute and the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family was used. The results of the research are as follows. First, half (50.36%) of the study subjects were in poverty and the child-rearing difficulty were higher for those in poverty than the non-poor class. Second, according to analysis, among the personal factors, depression(+) was found to have a positive effect on the child-rearing difficulty. In the family factors, the time spent child alone without caring adult(+) was found to have an effect on the child-rearing difficulty. In the environmental factors, it was found that the experience a single mother was discriminated against(+) and the housing environment were predictors. Among the work factors, working hours(+) and employment status predicted the difficulty of raising children. Third, as a result of comparing the poor group with the non-poor group, it was found that depression(+), the time spent child alone without caring adult(+), the single mother discriminated against(+) had a effect on the child-rearing difficulty in both groups. On the other hand, educational level, housing environment, the number of institutions or persons eligible for help(-), employment status and working hours(+) were found to have an effect on the child-rearing difficulty among the non-poor group, and they were not significant in the poor-group. In the poor-group, the number of households(+) was found to be a significant influence. Based on the results of these studies, policy measures were proposed to alleviate the poverty and difficulty in raising children of female single parents.