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This study examined the prevalence of adherence factors, toxin genes, antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, and resistance genes in Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from piglets with diarrhea before and after the ban on antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in Korea from 2007 to 2018. In this period, pathogenic 474 E. coli isolates were obtained from diarrheic piglets. The virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance genes were assayed using a polymerase chain reaction, and the susceptibility to antibiotics was tested according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. After the ban on AGPs, the frequency of F4 (12.5% to 32.7%) increased significantly, and LT (31.9% to 20.3%) and EAST-I (46.5% to 35.2%) decreased significantly. In addition, the resistance to streptomycin (45.8% to 67.9%), cephalothin (34.0% to 59.4%), and cefazlin (10.4% to 28.8%) increased significantly. Colistin resistance plasmid-mediated genes, mcr-1 and mcr-3, were detected after the ban on AGPs. The results of this study can provide useful data for analyzing the impact of the ban on AGPs on the virulence profiles and antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolated from piglets with diarrhea in Korea.