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Microbial communities greatly affect rearing water quality and the larvae health during shrimp hatchery periods. In this study, we investigated the microbial communities of rearing water and larvae of Litopenaeus vannamei after treating hatchery water with different kinds of chemical disinfectants: no disinfectants (Con), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), formaldehyde solution (HCHO), bleach powder (CaClO), and iodine (I2). The water and larval samples were collected from nauplius 6 (N6), zoea 1 (Z1), mysis 1 (M1), and postlarvae 1 (P1) shrimp growth periods. 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing revealed that the bacterial composition of the rearing water was more complex than that of the larvae, and the bacterial community of the rearing water and the larvae fluctuated significantly at the P1 and Z1 periods, respectively. Disinfectants altered the bacterial diversity and composition of the rearing water and larvae. Specifically, in the rearing water of the P1 period, Proteobacteria abundance was increased in the HCHO group; while Bacteroidetes abundance was decreased in the ClO2, HCHO, and I2 groups but increased in the CaClO group. In the larvae of the Z1 period, Firmicutes (especially Bacillus class) abundance was increased in the CaClO group, but decreased in the ClO2, HCHO, and I2 groups. Network analyses revealed that the genera Donghicola, Roseibacterium, Candidatus-Cquiluna, and Nautella were enriched in the rearing water, while Halomonas, Vibrio, and Flavirhabdus had high abundance in the larvae. The survival of shrimp was influenced by disinfectants that were inconsistent with the bacterial community changes. These results will be helpful for using microbial characteristics to facilitate healthy shrimp nursery.