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Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the influence of post-traumatic stress on professional quality of life as mediated by cognitive emotion regulation among nurses working in small and medium hospitals who have experienced violence and to develop and test a structural equation model of that professional quality of life. Methods: Participants were 215 nurses who had experienced violence working in medium and small hospitals. They were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Results: The final model was shown to have good fit with χ2 (2.83), GFI (.90), TLI (.90), and CIF (.90). Therefore, the model was selected as the final model, supporting 7 of the 11 hypotheses. Post-traumatic stress, adaptive emotional regulation, and maladaptive emotional regulation had significant impacts on empathy satisfaction (professional quality of life subscale) and empathy fatigue (subscale of professional life quality) among nurses who had experienced violence, and the explanatory power of these variables was 28.7% and 38.6%, respectively. Conclusion: In the development of nursing intervention programs to improve the professional quality of life of nurses who have experienced violence, factors such as post-traumatic stress and cognitive emotion regulation (adaptive and maladaptive) should be considered as they were identified in this study as influencing the professional quality of life of such nurses in medium and small hospitals.