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This study is to analyze the growth response of the Quercus dentata seedlings to four environmental factors and measure the ecological niche breadth. Environmental factors were light, moisture content, soil texture, and organic matter, treated with four gradients. The more quantity light increased, the heavier the leaves biomass, aboveground biomass, belowground biomass and plant biomass was. In treatment of water content and soil texture, growth response was no difference. The more organic matter increased, the heavier aboveground biomass was, but the remaining trait of plant was no difference. The ecological niche breadth was 0.865 in light, 0.995 in moisture content, 0.994 in soil texture and 0.988 in nutrient. Ecological niche breadth was the widest in the moisture content treatment and the narrowest in the light treatment. This means that the growth of Q. dentata seedlings grows well as the amount of light increases, and is sensitive to light, Thus, it is determined a growth and ecological niche breadth by light factors.