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Chironomidae widely utilize as a biological indicator that has various types of feeding pattern such as omnivorous, herbivorous and carnivorous. Polypedilum scalaenum is known as omnivorous, it plays an important role in the food chain of freshwater ecosystems in Korea. Nevertheless, detailed information about diet items of P. scalaenum is still lacking. The purpose of this study is to identify the gut and intestine contents of items on P. scalaenum inhabiting the large-scale weirs of the four major river ecosystems (Ipoh Weir, Sejong Weir, Juksan Weir, Gangjeong-Goryeong Weir, and Dalseong Weir). Phytoplankton was dominant diet items among the study sites. However, zooplankton (i.e. appendages, setae) only found in Ipoh Weir. The phytoplankton species composition in the study sites was correspond to the diet items in the gut and intestine contents of P. scalaenum. In summary, analysis of P. scalaenum gut and intestine contents in this study was able to identify the feeding characteristics of omnivorous Chironomidae, and in particular, it was possible to study the species composition of basic producers in the surrounding aquatic environment by analyzing the contents of the digestive tracts.