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Artificial and natural changes such as weir construction and climate change often cause abnormal blooming of organism. Therefore, variations in species community of organisms have been actively investigated to identify influential environmental changes on the fresh water ecosystem. In this study, we investigated Chironomidae community and environmental factors at 5 representative weirs (Ipo, IP; Sejong, SJ; Juksan, JS; Gangjeong-goryung, GG; and Dalsung weir) in 4 Korean major rivers to figure out relationship between Chironomidae community and environmental factors. Environmental factors indicating organic matter (total organic carbon, TOC and Chlorophyll-a, Chl-a) showed lower concentration in IP and SJ compared with other sites (JS, GG and DS). 3 sub-family 18 genus 25 species of Chironomidae community were found in this study. Among them, Chironominae was dominant in JS (Tanytarsus sp.1), GG (Polypedilum scalaenum) and DS (Polypedilum scalaenum), while different sub-family were dominant in IP (Orthcladinae, Tokunagayusurika akamushi) and SJ (Tanypodinae, Tanypus punctipennis). Moreover, based on the dominant species of Chironomidae community and environmental factors, the cluster analysis classified our study sites into 3 groups. These results imply that the diet resource is the most important factor for dominance of Chironomidae in Korean rivers. We also suggest that further study on the identification of diet resources for each Chironomidae specie is required for better understating of distribution in species community of Chironomidae at various ecosystems.