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The biological indices based on the community structure with species richness and/or abundance are commonly used to assess aquatic ecosystem health. Meanwhile, recently functional traits-based approach is considered in ecosystem health assessment to reflect ecosystem functioning. In this study, we developed a database of biological traits for 136 taxa consisting of major stream insects (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Coleoptera, and Odonata) collected at Korean streams on the nationwide scale. In addition, we obtained environmental variables in five categories (geography, climate, land use, hydrology and physicochemistry) measured at each sampling site. We evaluated the relationships between community indices based on taxonomic diversity and functional diversity estimated from biological traits. We classified sampling sites based on similarities of their environmental variables and evaluated relations between clusters of sampling sites and diversity indices and biological traits. Our results showed that functional diversity was highly correlated with Shannon diversity index and species richness. The six clusters of sampling sites defined by a hierarchical cluster analysis reflected differences of their environmental variables. Samples in cluster 1 were mostly from high altitude areas, whereas samples in cluster 6 were from lowland areas. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) displayed similar patterns with cluster analysis and presented variation of taxonomic diversity and functional diversity. Based on NMDS and community-weighted mean trait value matrix, species in clusters 1-3 displayed the resistance strategy in the life history strategy to the environmental variables whereas species in clusters 4-6 presented the resilience strategy. These results suggest that functional diversity can complement the biological monitoring assessment based on taxonomic diversity and can be used as biological monitoring assessment tool reflecting changes of ecosystem functioning responding to environmental changes.