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The purpose of thise study was to analyze the acquisition patterns of Korean diphthongs by Mongolian learners of Korean in terms of perception and production, and to provide implications forof teaching Korean diphthongs to the Mongolian learners of Korean based on the analysis. For the study, 18 Mongolian beginning learners of Korean participated in the experiments. In the perception test, the Mongolian subjects were asked to transcribe what they heard in Hangeul while listening to 10 Korean diphthongs recorded by a Korean native speaker. In the production test, four Korean evaluators were asked to transcribe what they heard in Hangeul while listening to 10 Korean diphthongs recorded by 18 Mongolian learners. As a result of the perception test, the order of accuracy of Mongolian subjects was ja, jʌ> wa> je, we, ju> jo, wi> wʌ> ɨi, and the order of accuracy in terms of production was ja> jʌ> jo, wa, we> je> wi> wʌ> ju> ɨi. Based on the results, the degree of difficulty of learning Korean diphthongs for Mongolian learners iwas established, and implications for teaching arewere also described.