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This paper analyzes the cognitive process of the formation of meaning and image of the moon from the perspective of cognitive linguistics. This paper analyzes the cognitive process of the formation of meaning and image of the moon from the perspective of cognitive linguistics. The language structure of Moon is the poet's intuitive expression of natural landscape, that is, the image in the image of the moon in Tang poetry. The poet's description of the moon adopts the expression of personification, simulacrum and spatialization, which is a cognitive metaphor. In addition, the poet also refers to the moon or other things by other means, which is a cognitive metonymic expression. The meaning in the image of the moon in Tang poetry refers to the thoughts and feelings expressed by the poet through the image of the moon. To experience meaning in poetry, we need to rise from the language structure of Moon to the text level. From the perspective of cognitive metaphor, the basic image of the moon is that the moon has a circle, the moon is Yin, and the moon is water, which is also the basis of other derived images. From the perspective of cognitive metonymy, on the one hand, the linguistic structure of image can produce meaning transfer in poetry; on the other hand, the poet uses poetic language to refer to deeper regular common sense, illocutionary meaning, inferential conclusion, etc.