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This article analyzes the relations between the Red Cavalry commanders and the Purge against the Red Army (or “The Tukhachevskii Affair”) in the late 1930s. According to previous historiography on the Purge, M. N. Tukhachevskii and other purged commanders were the champions of progress in the face of the obscurantism of the Red Cavalry. This is part of the underlying assumptions and myths that have dominated the literature on the mechanization program and the Red Cavalry before World War II. There emerge three questions on the relations between the Red Cavalry commanders and the Purge. Firstly, was previous historiography on the Purge correct in believing that the Red Cavalry commanders were safe from the Purge? Secondly, even if not all the Red Cavalry commanders were exempt from the Purge, were the cavalry commanders who had some personal connection with Stalin and Voroshilov, specifically the former members in the 1st Cavalry Army (Pervaia konnaia armiia), actually safe from the Purge? Third and last, were the victims purged for political reasons only? To answer these questions, this article attempts to explain the Purge, focusing on the commanders’ social background and career analysis. Actually, the cause of the Purge was not the unfortunate end of the mechanization debate or the conflict between cavalry commanders and tank commanders. While the Purge certainly caused heavy attrition, it can hardly be regarded as the destruction of the ‘pro-mechanizers’ around Tukhachevskii by the cavalry commanders. That is, the tank enthusiasts around Tukhachevskii cannot be seen as a special target of the Purge; the cavalry commanders also suffered in the Purge, contrary to previous historiography.