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Schisandrin A (Sch A) is one of the principalbioactive lignans isolated from Fructus schisandrae. In thisstudy, we demonstrated its protective effect and biochemicalmechanism of action in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced mouse model of Parkinson’sdisease. Sch A significantly ameliorated behavioural abnormalitiesand increased the number of nigral dopaminergicneurons detected by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. Pre-treatment with Sch A significantly decreasedthe levels of the inflammatory mediators IL-6, IL-1β, andTNF-α and markedly improved antioxidant defences byinhibiting the activity of MDA and increasing that of SOD. Furthermore, Sch A activated expression of the autophagyrelatedproteins LC3-II, beclin1, parkin, and PINK1 andincreased mTOR expression. Taken together, these findingsindicate that Sch A has neuroprotective effects against thedevelopment of Parkinson’s disease via regulation of brainautophagy.