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19세기 조선시대는 위기의 시대였다. 국내적으로는 민란과 같은 저항이 계속되었고, 국외적으로는 서양세력의 외압이 가중되고 있었다. 이러한 국내외적인 위기 속에서 조선이 갖고 있던 군사적 대비 실태를 정확히 아는 것은 매우 의미 있는 일이다. 이러한 문제의식 속에서 이 논문은 19세기 조선시대 지방의 군비 실태를 解由文書와 重記를 통해 파악하고자 하였다. 특히 이를 위해 구체적 사례 연구로서 1827년 「陜川郡守解由」 문서와 1886년 『陜川郡各房都重記』를 검토하였다. 당시 그 지역에는 다양한 군비들이 있었다. 이러한 군비들은 규정에 따라 마련된 것으로 생각된다. 그러나 그것은 형식적인 측면이고 실제 상황은 좋지 않았던 것으로 확인되었다. 군비 상태가 이처럼 좋지 않다는 것은 지방군의 위상이 나빠지고 있음을 보여준다. 이는 당시 조선의 국방력과 지방통제력이 약화되어가고 있었음을 의미하는 것이기도 하다.


This study aims to find out the military situation in the 19th century in the Joseon Dynasty based on “Haeyu documents” and “Jung Gi” data. The 19th century Chosun Dynasty was a time of crisis. Domestically, resistance such as civil turmoil continued. Outside the country, external pressure from Western forces was building up. Military response is the most basic way to solve these internal and external problems. Thus, in order to understand the reality of Chosun, the need for empirical research on what the military situation was like emerged. Therefore, this study focused on ‘Haeyu Document’ and ‘Jung Gi’ as data that could identify the status of local military expenditures at the time. ‘Haeyu Document’ and ‘Jung-Gi’ data can be said to be very valuable because it can grasp the local situation at a certain time in the most detailed way. In particular, the ‘Haeyu Document’ and ‘Jung-Gi’ data contain a wealth of information that can identify the state of armaments related to this paper. Based on this perception, this paper explored the actual situation of armaments in Hapcheongun in Kyungsangdo. What can be seen through this was that there were various armaments in the provinces at the time. These military equipment were, to some extent, found to have been in compliance with the regulations at the time. However, this was a formality, and we could confirm that it was in poor condition. This also means that Joseon's defense and regional control were weakening at the time.