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Purpose: This study sought to develop the Breastfeeding Adaptation Scale-Short Form (BFAS-SF) for use at 4 weeks postpartum, to test its validity and reliability, and to examine its measurement invariance. The latent mean score of the BFAS-SF across multiple groups was also compared. Methods: This methodological research study was conducted to develop a short form of the BFAS and to test its psychometric properties and measurement invariance. Data were collected twice for measurement invariance testing. The sample included 431 and 272 breastfeeding mothers at 2 weeks and 4 weeks postpartum, respectively. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis supported six dimensions of the BFAS-SF at 4 weeks postpartum. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed evidence for invariance of the BFAS-SF according to employment status, parity, delivery mode, and the postpartum period. There were statistically significant latent mean differences. Mothers who were unemployed and who had a vaginal delivery showed significantly higher scores for breastfeeding confidence, sufficient breast milk, and baby’s satisfaction with breastfeeding. Conclusion: The BFAS-SF is valid, reliable, and an appropriate instrument for assessing mothers’ breastfeeding adaptation. It can be used to compare mean scores according to employment status and delivery mode.