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A small number of viable tuberculosis bacilli can reside in an individual with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) without obvious clinical symptoms or abnormal chest radiographs. Diagnosis and treatment of LTBI are important for tuberculosis (TB) control in public and private healthcare facilities, particularly in high-risk populations. The updated 2017 Korean guidelines for TB recommend that tuberculin skin tests, interferon-gamma release assays, or a combination of them can be used for the diagnosis of LTBI, depending on the age and immune status of the patient as well as their TB contact history. For diagnosis of LTBI, exclusion of active TB is essential, and the possibility of healed TB in those without a history of treatment for TB but at risk of its development must be considered. The treatment options for LTBI include isoniazid, rifampicin, isoniazid/rifampicin, and isoniazid/rifapentine. The benefits and risks of these agents based on the age of the patient and their hepatotoxicity must be considered when selecting the appropriate drug. Standardized diagnosis and treatment of LTBI based on the updated 2017 guidelines will contribute to the control of TB in Korea as well as to further revisions of the guidelines.