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Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with depression and suicidal ideation in a rural population. Methods: A survey was conducted with 543 farmers from Chungcheongnam-do Province using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for depression, Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS) for social support, Swedish Q16 for neurotoxicity symptoms and a survey tool for farmer’s syndrome. Results: After adjusting for socioeconomic factors using logistic regression analysis, poor self-rated health, low social support and neurotoxicity were positively associated with the risk of depression (odds ratio [OR], 15.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.11 to 81.97; OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.26 to 7.82; and OR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.08 to 12.57, respectively). The risk of suicidal ideation significantly increased with low social support, neurotoxicity and farmer’s syndrome (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.18 to 4.40; OR, 6.17; 95% CI, 2.85 to 13.34; and OR, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.51 to 9.07, respectively). Conclusions: Given the overall results of this study, there is a need to establish programs which can improve the health and social relationships of farmers. Also, when farmers have neurological symptoms from pesticide exposure and characteristic symptoms of farmer’s syndrome, a monitoring system for depression and suicide must be made available.