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본 사례는 성과기반 보상을 위하여 어떻게 전사 성과급 규모를 산정해야 하는지를 보여주고 있다. 사례기업인 A호텔은 C 대학 내에서 레스토랑과 호텔업을 수행하는 대학 본부 산하의 사업체이다. A호텔은 2011년까지 이사회가 직전연도 성과급 수준을 고려하여 전사 성과급 규모를 결정한 후 개인별 기여도에 따라 지급하는 방식을 사용하였으나, 직원들을 적절하게 동기 부여하는데 어려움을 겪었다. 이를 극복하기 위하여 A호텔은 2012년에 전사성과급 재원규모 산정방식을 개선하여 재무적 지표인 매출과 EBITDA 그리고 비재무적 지표인 고객만족도를 기준으로 각 지표의 목표대비실적에 따라 등급별 점수를 부여하는 모델을 새롭게 개발하였다. A호텔은 모델 설계 시 다음 세 가지 기준에 부합할 수 있도록 하였다, 첫째, 성과급 규모가 경영성과와 연동되어야 한다는 것이고, 둘째는 형평성 있는 성과급 규모가 되어야 한다는 것이며, 셋째는 임직원들이 수용 가능해야 한다는 것이었다. 또한, 본 사례에서는 합리적인 목표설정을 위하여 상대적 성과평가기준 적용하는 방안과 경영계획상 목표를 부여하는 방법의 장단점을 분석하였다. 본 사례는 직원들을 효과적으로 동기부여하기 위하여 어떻게 효과적으로 성과급 재원규모 산정할 수 있는지에 대한 유용한 시사점을 제공한다.


This case study describes how A Hotel determines its incentive bonus pool size under a pay-for-performance scheme. Specifically, this case study investigates the process in which A Hotel finalizes performance measures and bonus targets. A Hotel is a business organization operating a restaurant and accommodation facility in an university. Before 2012, A Hotel determined the size of the discretionary bonus pool based on prior performance. However, A Hotel had difficulty motivating employees with the discretionary bonus pool, because strong trust based on communication between executives and employees are core elements for successful subjective evaluation(Gibbs et al 2004;Ittner et al 2003). To solve this problem, A Hotel redesigned its incentive structure for setting the bonus pool size. A Hotel incorporated both financial and non-financial performance measure in determining the size of bonus pool. Specifically, A Hotel used sales and EBITDA as financial indicators and customer satisfaction index as a non-financial indicator. Moreover, A Hotel set up individual targets for each performance measure and assigned the performance score based on the target achievability rate. When calculating the bonus pool size, A Hotel kept three principles. First, the bonus amount should be related to firm performance. Executives of A Hotel believe that employees are motivated by performance based incentives. Second, the size of bonus should be fair, which means that the total bonus amount of A Hotel should not be larger than the bonus size of its competitors whose size, performance, and employee structure are similar to those of A Hotel. Third, the size of the bonus pool should be acceptable to the employees. For example, if A Hotels current year performance’ is comparable to the performance of the past 4 years, then the bonus size should not be lower than the bonus size of the past 4 years. To set individual targets effectively, A Hotel considered the costs and benefits of using relative performance evaluation (option 1) and business budget targets (option 2). However, finding appropriate peer firms was not an easy task. For example, it is difficult to obtain the balance sheets, income statements, and performance evaluation information of organizations within universities. Furthermore, hotels such as Hotel Shilla and Lotte hotel disclose their performance, but they operate duty free shops, and A Hotel cannot separate the performance of the hotel business from the entire business performance of these hotels. Therefore A Hotel decided to use the budget target when setting the size of bonus pool. Another important issue for the target level is that the business budget target in 2012 is based on the planning budget, which is not an adequate measure for the incentive target. Edgar and LeRoy(1977) show that planning budget targets should be attainable, whereas operational budget target should be difficult yet attainable. If A Hotel uses the planning budget target in setting the bonus size, the size would be exaggerated and thus break the fairness principle of A Hotel. For example, the hypothetical bonus pool based on the planning budget would be 1,220 million Korean Won. The executives consider this amount is too large for the boards accept. However, A Hotel had not set the operational budget target for year 2012. So A Hotel decided to use the adjusted planning budget target for the incentive target. In December 2012, the executives of A Hotel submitted a bonus pool for 2012(which amounted to 1,018 million Korean won) to the board. 1,018 million Korean won was calculated based on the estimated income for 2012. The board approved the bonus, and A Hotel awarded employees the bonus at the end of December. The executives of A Hotel should prepare an appropriate target level for setting bonus pool. The executives believed that if an appropriate bonus system is set, the system should motivate the employees and thus improve the overall performance of A Hotel. Furthermore, this should strengthen the trust between executives and employees.