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Quantum solutions of a time-dependent Hamiltonian for the motion of a time-varying mass subjected to time-dependent singular potentials in three dimensions are investigated. A time-dependent inverse quadratic potential and a Coulomb-like potential are considered as the components of the singular potential of the system. Because the Hamiltonian is a function of time, special techniques for deriving quantum solutions of the system are necessary. A quadratic invariant operator is introduced, and its eigenstates are derived using the Nikiforov-Uvarov method together with a unitary transformation method. The Nikiforov-Uvarov method enables us to solve the eigenvalue equations of the invariant operator, which are second-order linear diffierential equations, by reducing the original equation to a hypergeometric type. According to the invariant operator theory, the wave functions of the system are represented in terms of the eigenstates obtained in such a way. The difference of the wave functions from the eigenstates of the invariant operator is that the wave functions have time-dependent phases while the eigenstates do not. By determining the phases of the wave functions via the help of the Schr¨odinger equation, we identify the full wave functions of the system and address their physical implications.