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This study determines the factors that contribute to the sense of self-identity for children from multicultural and rural families and provides a systematic understanding of individual self-identity. It also provides implications on how parents, teachers, and professionals can approach their role when instructing and rearing children of different sociocultural backgrounds. The subjects consist of the 310 children from multicultural families (Korean fathers and immigrant mothers) residing in South Korea and 280 children from rural families with similar conditions to those in multicultural families in North Jeolla Province South Korea. The sense of self-identity and maternal parenting behavior were perceived differently by children of multicultural and rural families, whose sense of self-identity was affected by school satisfaction and maternal parenting behavior.