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이 글은 東洋 古典에 보이는 사례에 대한 분석을 중심으로 황도대 중심의 천문관인 28수 및 12차 이론의 기원과 두 이론 간의 불가분적인 관계를 살펴본 것이다. 동서양을 막론하고 고래로 인간은 생활과 밀접한 관련이 있는 曆法을 세우기 위해 천문학에 대한 연구를 끊임없이 지속해 왔으며, 나아가 그것은 국가와 제왕의 安危와 전쟁, 豊凶에 대한 판단 등의 점성학적 용도로도 활용되었다. 중국의 천문학은 北極星과 北斗七星을 중심으로 하는 중국 고유의 천문학과, 赤道·黃道帶를 중심으로 하는 고대 서양점성학과 유사한 형식의 두 가지가 병존한다. 28수 천문관은 고대의 인도, 중국, 일본은 물론 이집트, 아랍 등 곳곳에서 나타난다. 그 유래에 대해 여러 견해가 있지만 바빌로니아起源說이 가장 설득력이 있으며, 인도를 거쳐 서역과의 교류가 활발했던 巴蜀지역을 통해 중국에 전해진 것으로 보인다. 그 유입 시기는 28수 거의 대부분에 대한 기록이 나타나는 『呂氏春秋』의 저작 시기보다 앞서며, 청룡·백호 및 28수 전체가 그려져 있는 유물이 발견된 曾侯乙墓의 조성시기로 추정되는 기원전 433년 무렵보다 조금 앞서는, 『漢書』 「律曆志」에 기록된 “牽牛初度가 冬至點”이었던 기원전 450년경으로 추정된다. 기원전 1900년경 이후로 줄곧 동서교류가 폭넓게 이루어졌다는 역사적·고고학적 사실에서, 張騫이 실크로드를 개척했던 前漢 때 보다 훨씬 오래전에도 서양천문학 유입의 가능성은 충분히 열려 있었다. 28수 이론과 함께 중국에 유입된 황도12궁은 12차 이론으로 수용되었다. 星紀·玄枵·娵觜·降婁… 등의 12차 명칭 대부분은 서양의 황도12궁과 유사하거나 같은 위치의 별자리들을 의미한다. 아울러 위의 12차 명칭은 황도12궁의 獸帶와 같은 특정 별자리를 의미하며, 12차를 丑次·子次·亥次·戌次… 등의 12地支로 표기하는 방식은 황도대의 동지점을 중심으로 30도씩 등분할한 천구상의 일정한 각도를 의미한다. 이들 이론은 기원전 4세기 말에서 기원전 3세기 초에 齊나라 稷下學宮에서 鄒衍 등에 의해 비약적인 전파와 발전이 있었을 것으로 생각된다.


This study investigated the origins of the Twenty-eight Mansions and the Twelve Equal Divisions, which are the astronomical viewpoint centering on the Zodiac, and the inseparable relationships between the two theories with a focus on the analysis of the cases appeared in the Oriental Classics. Regardless of Western or Eastern culture, humans have continuously exerted their efforts to study astronomy in order to establish the calendar that was closely related to their livings from ancient times. Furthermore, this was also used as for astrological purpose to judge the security of the nation and the emperor, as well as a war and the year of good or bad harvest. The ancient China had two types of astronomies: its own unique astronomy that centered around the North Star and the Big Dipper, and the astronomy, which was similar to the ancient Western astrology that centered on the equator and the zodiac. The astronomical viewpoints in relation to the Twenty-eight Mansions are found all over the countries; not only in the ancient India, China, and Japan, but also in the ancient Egypt, Arabic countries etc. There are many different opinions on its origins, the suggestions advanced as to the origin of the Twenty-eight Mansions that it was originated from Babylonia is most convincing. It seems that the theory was transmitted into the ancient China through the present Sichuan province, which was one of vigorous interchanges between the countries bordering on Western China, via India. The time of influx of such theories come before the period that literally “Master Lu's Spring and Autumn Annals (呂氏春秋)” was written, where almost the whole records of the Twenty-eight Mansions are discovered. It is estimated to be around 450 BC when “Altair (牽牛初度) is the Winter Solstice.” was recorded under the title of 「Treatise on Almanac (律曆志)」in the History Book of West Han (漢書) which is a little ahead of around 433 BC that is believed to be the period when “The Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng” (曾侯乙墓) had been constructed where the artifacts, in which Azure Dragon and White Tiger and the entire system of the Twenty-eight Mansions were depicted. By interpreting historical and archeological evidence that a broad range of the cultural exchange between the East and the West had been carried out since 1900 BC, it can be said that there were good chances to import the western astronomy far earlier than the era of the West Han (西漢) when Jang Geon (張騫) had explored the silk road. Together with the theory of the Twenty-eight Mansions, the 12 constellations of the Zodiac that was introduced in China was accepted as the theory of the Twelve Equal Divisions. The most names of the Twelve Equal Divisions including Seonggi (星紀), Hyeonhyo (玄枵), Chwuja (娵貲), Kangru (降婁) etc. are similar to the 12 Constellations of Zodiac, or signify the constellations in the same spot in the sky. Also, the above titles of the Twelve Equal Divisions of Zodiac denote the specific constellation in the same spot as in the 12 Constellations of the Zodiac, and the method of emblemizing the Twelve Equal Divisions in terms of the Twelve Earthly Branches (地支), e.g. Chukcha (丑次), Jacha (子次), Haecha (亥次), Sulcha (戌次) etc., means an identical degree of the celestial sphere which has been divided into 30 degree equally centering on the same spot. It is considered that these theories had achieved rapid dissemination, and significant progress due to the efforts of Chu Yeon (鄒衍) and others in the Jixia Academy (稷下學宮) between the end of the 4th Century BC and the early of the 3rd Century BC.