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The process of embryo implantation requires physical contact and physiological communication between the conceptus trophectoderm and the maternal uterine endometrium. During the peri-implantation period in pigs, the conceptus undergoes significant morphological changes and secretes estrogens, the signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy. Estrogens secreted from the conceptus act on uterine epithelia to redirect PGF_2α, luteolysin, secretion from the uterine vasculature to the uterine lumen to prevent luteolysis as well as to induce expression of endometrial genes that support implantation and conceptus development. In addition, conceptuses secrete cytokines, interferons, growth factors, and proteases, and in response to these signals, the uterine endometrium produces hormones, protease inhibitors, growth factors, transport proteins, adhesion molecules, lipid molecules, and calcium regulatory molecules. Coordinated interactions of these factors derived from the conceptus and the uterus play important roles in the process of implantation in pigs. To better understand mechanism of implantation process in pigs, this review provides information on signaling molecules at the conceptus-uterine interface during early pregnancy, including recently reported data reported.