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Transgenic rats and mice are useful experimental animal models for medical research including human disease model studies. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology is successfully applied in most mammalian species including cattle, sheep, pig and mouse. SCNT is also considered to increase the efficacy of transgenic/knockout mouse and rat production. However, in the area of reproductive biotechnology, the rodent model is inadequate because of technical obstacles in manipulating the oocytes including intracytoplasmic sperm injection and SCNT. In particular, success of rat SCNT is very limited so far. In this review, the history of rodent cloning is described.