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20세기 후반 미국에서 프로그램화 되어 세계적으로 보급된 어린이 철학교육이 한국에 소개된 지 20년여년이 지났지만, 철학교육의 혜택은 여전히 소수의 어린이들에게 국한되어 있다. 이에 본 연구는 어린이 철학교육을 한국 사회에 성공적으로 정착시키기 위해 어린이 철학교육을 위한 교재와 방법을 비판적으로 검토하고, 지향점을 모색하였다. 어린이를 위한 철학교육의 교재는 어린이들의 삶과 관련된 흥미로운 이야기로 구성되어야 한다. 이야기는 어린이의 정신적 능력을 발휘할 수 있는 최적의 대상이며, 정서적·인지적 자극을 제공하며, 모든 사람의 관심을 끌 수 있으며, 흥미와 참여를 유도하기 때문이다. 철학적 토론을 풍성하게 하기 위해서는 이야기를 구성할 때 맥락, 시간적 순서, 특정사건, 의도, 선택, 의미, 말하기 등의 요인을 고려하여야 한다. 세계적으로 보급된 립맨의 탐구공동체 방법론은 소크라테스식 대화와 듀이의 반성적 사고 방법론의 영향을 받아 성립되었으며, 립맨의 방법론은 이들 철학자들의 방법론을 계승 발전시킨 것으로 평가되었다. 그러나 립맨의 방법론은 미국 어린이들의 삶을 토대로 성립되었기 때문에 한국 어린이들의 삶과 경험을 반영하지 못한다는 평가를 받았다. 교실에서 어린이 철학수업이 활성화되기 위해서는 교실을 하나의 토의 동아리로 전환시킬 필요가 있었다. 이를 위한 절차로 공동체 자리배치, 탐구규칙 제정 및 동의하기, 이야기(교재) 읽기, 질문 목록 작성 및 토론하기, 탐구주제 선정 및 진행하기, 탐구검토하기, 그리고 탐구확장하기를 제안하였다.


This paper is about the text and method of philosophy for children. It offers ways to facilitate philosophical enquiry with groups of children at home or school, encouraging children to think critically and creatively through dialogue. One of the most successful attempts to create a coherent programme in teaching thinking is the Philosophy for Children programme, devised by Matthew Lipman(1922-2010) and colleagues at Montclair University. The programme has been developed to provide a curriculum for philosophical enquiry for children from nursery to college level, and is use in an increasing number of countries around the world. Although Lipman’s philosophy for children has achieved great success, it has not been succeeded in the Korean public schools. This paper aimed to discuss on the text and method of philosophy for children to facilitate it in Korea. As far as text in philosophy for children is concerned, all the experts, Lipman, Matthews, Fisher, about child philosophy proposed stories in which children are interested and philosophical points of view are abundant. Because stories have long been seen as a natural stimulus for discussion, investigation and problem-solving in schools and provide the most common starting point for philosophical with children means for developing thinking, learning and language skills. As far as method in philosophy for children is concerned, all the experts proposed the Socratic dialogue and Dewy’s how to think. In America the tradition of community of enquiry developed by Lipman, Ann Sharp and others was influenced by the philosophies of Socrates, Dewey and Peirce. The Lipman Philosophy for Children programme shares many similar features of pedagogic practice derived from the Socratic method, while there are some differences and commonness between the Philosophy for Children approach and the Europen tradition of Socratic dialogues. Nevertheless the differences and commonness of the methods, child philosophy stressed on dialogue and common enquiry influenced by Socrates and Dewey. Philosophical dialogue can help develop conceptual understanding in all areas of the school curriculum. The use of discussion is essential for developing understanding of the structure of any discipline. To do this, this paper suggested some procedures for child philosophy in school. A community of enquiry can be described as a thinking circle. The seating of participants in a circle, or its near-equivalent such as a horse-shoe shape, allows for equality of position with maximum vision within the group. Once the setting is established, the usual stages in organizing a community of enquiry can be summarized as follows: community setting, agreeing rules for enquiry, presenting a stimulus (stories, text), listening & discussing questions, choosing a question for discussion, leading the discussion, reviewing the enquiry, and extending the enquiry.