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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of compassion satisfaction and social support in the relationship between compassion fatigue and burnout among hospital nurses. Methods: The participants were 430 nurses working in general hospitals. Data were collected with self-administrated questionnaires and analyzed by hierarchical multiple regression. Results: (a) Compassion fatigue had a significant positive effect on burnout; (b) social support and compassion satisfaction had negative effects on burnout, and (c) social support and compassion satisfaction did not moderate the effects of compassion fatigue on burnout. Conclusion: These findings provide strong empirical evidence for the importance of compassion fatigue,compassion satisfaction and social support in explaining burnout of nurses. Also, it would be of great value to further define compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction even though these concepts are not accepted in the realities of health care.