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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify main factors affecting patients’ uncertainty following lumbar spinal surgery. Methods: A survey was conducted of a sample 155 post -operative patients in April to June 2010. Uncertainty and knowledge about self-care after spinal surgery and the back pain evaluation were measured. Data were analyzed with t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple regressions. Results: The mean score of uncertainty level was 27.66±6.32. Levels of uncertainty were different by age, gender, educational level, pain duration, and number of types of pain. Uncertainty was positively correlated with knowledge of post-op self-care, back pain, and mental health. The results of multiple regression indicated that knowledge of post-op self-care and mental health were significant predictors with 35.1% of the variance in uncertainty. Conclusion: A program including post-operative self-care education and mental health promotion is required to reduce uncertainty of patients with lumbar spinal surgery.