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본고는 고려시대에는 총 6회에 걸쳐 개설된 관정도량을 분석해, 그 사상적 연원과 특성을 살펴보았다. 각 사례를 분석한 결과, 6회 가운데 2회는 즉위의례로서 개설되었으며, 나머지 4회가 밀교 기양의례로서 개설되었다. 밀교 기양의례로서의 관정도량은 『灌頂經』을 所依經典으로 한다. 『관정경』은 12권의 小經으로 구성되어 있는데, 관정도량은 그 가운데 제4권인 『佛說灌頂百結神王護身呪經』을 소의로 개설되었을 것으로 보인다. 그리고 개설 목적은 전란 방지 등 護國을 위한 것이었다. 즉위의례로서의 관정도량의 연원은 唐 肅宗이 밀교 승려 不空에게 받았던 轉輪王位七寶灌頂에서 찾을 수 있다. 당시 당은 安史의 亂으로 혼란한 상황이었기 때문에, 그 와중에 즉위한 숙종은 왕의 권위를 내세울 필요가 있었다. 고려시대 즉위의례로서의 관정도량도 이와 마찬가지로 왕의 권위를 높이기 위해 개설되었다. 더불어 충선왕의 경우, 라마교 승려에게 수계를 하는 모습이 보이기 때문에 밀교 전법의식의 성격도 함께 가졌다고 생각된다. 고려시대 관정도량의 가장 큰 특징은 상이한 의례가 동일한 명칭을 사용하였다는 점이다. 고려 강종대에 즉위의례로서의 관정도량이 최초로 등장하게 된 것은, 왕의 폐립을 마음대로 하였던 최충헌이 강종의 권위를 세워줄 필요가 있었던 것과 더불어, 당시 밀교가 성장하던 사상사적 배경을 이유로 꼽을 수 있다.


Abhiṣeka(灌頂) originated from the ancient enthronement ceremony of India and is compared to Bodhisattva getting a Buddha fruit(佛果) in Mahayana. Avatamsaka Sutra(『華嚴經』) is representative of Mahayana scriptures delivering such content. It has been considered to be a very important ceremony to inherit the esoteric methods. There are records on total six abhiṣeka rituals during Goryeo. According to the analysis results of each case, two of the six abhiṣeka rituals were held as an enthronement ceremony, and the remaining four as a Giyang(祈禳) ceremony - to eliminate internal and external confusions. Such dual nature of abhiṣeka rituals has been mentioned as one of the characteristics of abhiṣeka rituals during Goryeo. Abhiṣeka rituals as a Giyang ceremony in Esoteric Buddhism use Abhiṣeka Sutra(『灌頂經』) as a background of thought. Abhiṣeka Sutra consists of total 12 little sutras, of which the fourth volume “Bulseolg wanjeongbaekgyeolshinwanghoshinjugyeong(佛說灌頂百結神王護身呪經)" must have been used as background to hold an abhiṣeka ritual. Its purpose was to help to protect the nation including prevention of war. The origin of abhiṣeka ritual as an enthronement ceremony traces back to the abhiṣeka of seven treasures for the level of Cakravartin granted to Emperor Suzong(肅宗) of Tang Dynasty by Amogha -vajra, a priest of Esoteric Buddhism. Ascending to the throne in the middle of confusion caused by An Shi Rebellion, Emperor Suzong needed to highlight his authority as the king. In Goryeo, abhiṣeka rituals as an enthronement ceremony were also held to increase the king's authority. In case of King Chungseon(忠宣王), who received the commandments of Buddhism from a Lamaist priest, they had features as a ceremony to inherit the esoteric methods, as well. One of the biggest characteristics of abhiṣeka rituals during Goryeo was the use of the same title for different ceremonies, which is attributed to the fact that abhiṣeka rituals as a Giyang ceremony of Esoteric Buddhism were first established. In the latter half of Goryeo, King Kangjong(康宗) must have faced problems with an overlapping title when trying to receive abhiṣeka as his enthronement ceremony but been unable to changed the old title of the ceremony. In addition, abhiṣeka rituals as an enthronement ceremony focused on the act of abhiṣeka, which must have made it difficult to give up the title “abhiṣeka rituals." Those were the backgrounds behind the coexistence of two ceremonies with different features under the same title. Abhiṣeka rituals as an enthronement ceremony first appeared during the reign of King Kangjong in Goryeo due to a need to raise the royal authority for King Kangjong by Choi Chung-heon(崔忠獻), who had dethronement and enthronement at his will, and the ideological background of growing Esoteric Buddhism those days.