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제관법사의 명저 『천태사교의』가 무엇에 기초해 찬술되었는가 하는 점에 대해서는 예로부터 그가 스스로 『천태사교의』 마지막에서 언급하고 있듯이, “삼가 천태교의 廣本을 원안으로 하여 五時八敎를 간략하게 기록하였다.”고 하는 것에서, 법화삼대부와 유마경소 등을 참조한 것으로 보이고, 법화삼대부 가운데에서도 『법화현의』를 가장 많이 참조한 것을 확인할 수 있다. 그리하여 『천태사교의』와 『법화현의』와의 관계를 고찰한 결과는 다음과 같다. 『천태사교의』에서는 五時와 化儀四敎를 함께 설명하는데 이것은 『법화현의』의 敎相章과 관계하고, 또한 化法四敎는 그 行位說을 『법화현의』의 位妙단과 관련을 맺고 있다. 장교는 『법화현의』 위묘 가운데 三草를, 통교는 小木(小樹)을, 별교는 大木(大樹)을, 원교는 最實位를 따르는 것이 그것이다. 그리고 방편과 정수는 『법화현의』 보다는 『마하지관』을 따른 것이지만, 『마하지관』에서는 觀心을 중시하는 데 반해 『천태사교의』에서는 二十五方便에서 관심을 제외한 것은 매우 특이하다. 이처럼 『천태사교의』는 원융관심을 배제하고 있으며 隔歷적으로만 설명하고 있는 것도 하나의 큰 특색이다. 그것은 아무래도 『八敎大意』의 次第性과도 무관하지 않은 것으로 보인다. 『천태사교의』와 『법화현의』의 관계성이 두드러지는 부분은 바로 오시와 화의사교로 조직되어 있는 교상론이다. 비록 설명에는 적지 않은 차이를 보이고는 있지만 그 교상론이 開顯論이라는 점에서 그 맥을 같이 하고 있다. 또한 화법사교도 『천태사교의』는 『법화현의』 位妙와 관련을 보이는데, 비록 설명 상의 적지 않은 차이를 보인다고 해도 계위를 통해 강조한 圓頓의 漸次說은 일치한다고 보인다. 그러므로 『천태사교의』와 『법화현의』의 관계는 직접적인 광략의 관계는 아닐지언정 『천태사교의』 마지막에서 언급하는 바와 같이 법화현의를 원안으로 하여 참조하였다는 점은 분명하다고 하겠다.


Regarding the “Four Teachings of Tendai Sect"” which the masterpiece of Priest Che-Gwan (諦觀法師) was written based on, traditionally on the ground that he mentioned in the end of “Four Teachings of Tendai Sect,” I have briefly written concerning ‘Fivefold Periods’ and ‘Eight Teachings’ based on the broad-version of “Four Teachings of Tendai Sect.”, It is assumed that the relevant book referred to “Three Great Works of the Lotus Sutra (法華三大部)” and “Commentary of the Vimalakirti Sutra (維摩經疏)” and the like and, furthermore, “Essentials of the Lotus Sutra” among “Three Great Works of the Lotus Sutra” is confirmed to be most frequently referred to. The results of investigation regarding the relationship between the “Four Teachings of Tendai Sect” and “Essentials of the Lotus Sutra” are as follows:In “Four Teachings of Tendai Sect”, ‘Fivefold Periods (五時)’ and ‘Shakamuni's four modes of instruction (化儀四敎)’ are explained together. This is related to ‘the Chapter on Doctrine (敎相章)’ in ‘Essentials of the Lotus Sutra’. In the meantime Fourfold Doctrines of Conversion (化法四敎)", ‘the theory of the Ranks of Training (行位說)’ is related to ‘wimyo(位妙)dan’ in “Essentials of the Lotus Sutra”. Consequently, for the above reasons, the ‘Tripi aka Doctrine (藏敎)’ follows ‘samcho (三草)’ in ‘wimyo (位妙)’ of “Essentials of the Lotus Sutra”; the ‘Shared Doctrine (通敎)’ follows ‘somok (小木)’; ‘Distinctive Doctrine (別敎)’ follows ‘daemok (大木)’, and; the ‘Complete Doctrine (圓敎)’ follows ‘choisilwi (最實位)’. Additionally, Expediencies (方便; Upaya; the ways and means of emptiness and detachment) and Samaya (正受) follow “The Great Calming and Contemplation (摩訶止觀)” rather than the “Essentials of the Lotus Sutra”. However, “The Great Calming and Contemplation” attaches great importance to ‘contemplative insight into mind (觀心)’, whereas the “Four Teachings of Tendai Sect” uniquely excludes ‘contemplative insight into mind’ from ‘twenty-five Expediencies (二十五方便)’. Thus, the “Four Teachings of Tendai Sect” has a significant characteristic in that it excludes ‘perfect interfusion (圓融)’ and ‘contemplative insight into mind’ and describes only by way of ‘aspiration (隔歷)’. My opinion is that such a characteristic has some relation with ‘the nature of Gradation (次第性)’ in the “Outline of Eight Divisions of the Teaching (八敎大意)”. The area in which the relation of “Four Teachings of Tendai Sect” and “Essentials of the Lotus Sutra” stands out, is precisely ‘the theory on Doctrine (敎相論)’ which is organized with ‘Fivefold Periods (五時)’ and ‘Shakamuni's four modes of instruction (化儀四敎)’. Although they show a considerable difference in their descriptions respectively, they are in the same context in that ‘the theory on Doctrine’ is equal to ‘the theory on Regeneration (開顯論)’. In addition, regarding the “Fourfold Doctrines of Conversion”, the “Four Teachings of Tendai Sect” has a relation with ‘wimyo’ in “Essentials of the Lotus Sutra”. Although their descriptions are significantly different, they are consistent in accepting ‘theory on Gradation (漸次說)’ in ‘complete and sudden teaching (圓頓)’ which is emphasized through ‘the ranks of training (階位)’. Therefore, the “Four Teachings of Tendai Sect” and “Essentials of the Lotus Sutra” have no direct relation of brief or detailed explanation, but nevertheless, as commented at the end of “Four Teachings of Tendai Sect”, regarding the writing of the one, it is evident that Essentials of the Lotus Sutra (法華玄義) was referred to as the original text.


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The theory on Doctrine, Fourfold Doctrines of Conversion, the theory on Regeneration, theory on Gradation, Essentials of the Lotus Sutra.