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植民地時代の朝鮮の運送体制は, 1899年の京仁鉄道の敷設をきっかけにその体制が変わった。鉄道敷設以前には, 開港場を中心に民間運送業と倉庫業が発達していたが, 鉄道が敷設されたことで, 陸上運送は鉄道駅を中心に発達した。鉄道が開通した初期には, 鉄道会社が直接貨物の運送業を担当したため, 小運送業者の進出を封鎖していた。しかし, 1905年の第二次日韓協約以来, 日本の商品が大量に流入し, また韓国の農産物の輸出が増大することにより, 鉄道会社だけでは多くの貨物の集配が手におえなくなった。また, 当時韓国に進出した日本の商人たちが, 鉄道会社の小運送業の直営に対して反発し, 一般業者に小運送業を任せることを要請するに至ったが, その結果, 鉄道会社は一般の小運送業者に小運送業を任せることになった。京仁, 京釜線の敷設と鉄道線路の拡張は, 小運送業界の営業網を拡張させると共に, 群小運送業者が乱立することとなった。当時, 小運送業界は誰もが自由に開業できる状態だったので, 資力も信用もない業者が乱立し, 貨物の争奪に明け暮れ, 弊害が増加した。日本当局は, 資力と信用が日本人よりも不足だった朝鮮の小運送業者の淘汰と共に, 朝鮮の小運送業を掌握し, 一元化するために様々な統制政策を実施する。まず, 統監府鉄道管理局は, 1907年に日本の有力な会社である內國通運株式會社を朝鮮に進出させ, 承認運送店制度を通して特恵を与えた。また, 承認貨物取扱人手続順序を通して朝鮮の小運送業者たちを圧迫し, 指定運送店制度で零細な小運送業者を統制した。こうした統制政策は, 朝鮮に居住する日本人を中心に立てられた朝鮮運輸計算株式會社と, 朝鮮人の運送業者たちで構成された鮮運同友會の結束につながった。そして, 1927年から始まった鉄道局の朝鮮小運送合同計画は, 朝鮮運送株式会社が設立された後, 1932年になって大合同を成した。しかし, この時期にも朝鮮の小運送の合同が成されなかったため, 日本当局は法律で統制し, その完成をなそうとした。それまで自由業であった小運送業を免許制実施として定めた朝鮮小運送令を公布·施行し, 1942年に陸運統制令で朝鮮の小運送の一元化体制を完成した。こうして朝鮮の小運送業を陸運, 海運まで, 一元的に統合し, 支配するようになり, 戦時体制期の運送網を完成した。


Joseon transportation system during Japanese colonial period was changed on the occasion of Kyungin Railway construction in 1899. Though private transport business and warehousing had been developed centering on open ports prior to the railway construction, railway-centered land transports became activated by the railway construction. In the early days when the railway was opened, the railway company took charge of cargo transport business directly, and blocked advances of minor transporters. However, the railway company could not deal with collections and deliveries on a lot of cargos owing to vast influxes of Japanese products and increasing exports of Korean agricultural products after 1905 Convention (Eulsa Agreement). Also, Japanese merchants who entered into Korea then opposed to direct management of minor transport business by the railway company, and they requested the company to entrust it to general dealers at last, and thus the railway company became to leave minor transport businesses to general small-size transporters. By construction of Kyungin, Kyungbu Railways and expansion of railway lines, it made sales networks of minor transport industry expanded, but petty transport transporters became to be crowded with at the same time. As anyone of the minor transport industry could open a business freely then, various evil practices were increased by indulging in cargo struggles while transporters who had not self-capital and credits were flooded with. Japanese authority became to carry out various controlling policies to seize and unify the minor transport business in Joseon together with weeding out Joseon minor transporters who were more insufficient in self-capital and credits than Japanese. First of all, Railway Management Bureau of Japanese Residency-General made Domestic Express Co., Ltd, an influential company in Japan, advance to Joseon at 1907, and gave advantages through approval transport point system. In addition, they oppressed minor transporters in Joseon by freighter procedure order on the approved cargos, and also controlled small-scale transporters by implementing specified transporting point. These controlling policies made Joseon Transport Calculation Co., Ltd having been established by Joseon-residency Japanese and Seonun (Joseon Transport) Association consisted of Joseon transporters united. And the joint plan on Joseon minor transports by Railway Bureau having been started from 1927 became to reach great solidarity in 1932 at last after Joseon Transport Co., Ltd’s establishment. Nonetheless, solidarity of Joseon minor transports was not achieved, so Japanese authority intended to see its completion by doing legal controls. They pronounced and implemented Joseon minor transport ordinance in which mini transport business having been operated freely in the mean time was changed into the license system, and unified system was completed on Joseon minor transports at 1942 by land transport control ordinance. In this way, minor transport business in Joseon became controlled by integrating it into land transport and shipping in a unified method, and transport networks were completed in the wartime period.