초록 close

改革开放30年来,我国吸纳了成千上万家外资企业。其中大部分外资企业在自身发展壮大中,也为中国经济社会发展作出了贡献。但也有企业出现违规经营、产品质量缺陷、对职工利益缺乏保护以及破坏环境等一系列问题,而受到社会质疑。社会上要求外资企业加强社会责任的呼声日益增加。其中,对于产品责任的要求无疑是最突出的。正如,有些学者所讲,企业因生产产品而获益,却将现阶段科技水平所无法达到而导致的损害后果让受害人独自承担,是不合理也不公正,这是将生产企业在发展中的风险与责任全部推给弱势的消费者。我国出口产品的60%是由外资企业制造的,因此,在华外资企业也应当承担起保障和提高产品质量的责任。在我国工业化的进程中,制造业的发展是非常快的。总体来讲,在这一发展进程中,我国企业的产品质量是不断提高的,这是一个客观的趋势。客观数据反映,我国企业出口产品的检验合格率甚至比某些发达国家进口到中国的产品检验合格率还高。但是,必须承认,我国在产品的质量方面,在产品的出口管理方面有需要改善的地方,这既需要企业本身加强对产品质量的重视,好的质量才是企业长期发展的根本保障,也需要加强和完善我国的质量监管制度。在华外资企业是具有中国国籍的中国法人,同时它具有涉外因素。最近几年,有关外资企业产品责任案件的陆续发生,使得中国国内对于外资企业产品责任问题的关注逐渐升温。目前,中国国内还没有调整产品责任问题的专门法律,即《产品责任法》,而解决产品责任诸多规定散见于《民法通则》、《产品质量法》、《消费者权益保护法》、《食品安全法》、《侵权责任法》、《刑法》等法律和最高人民法院的司法解释及《缺陷汽车产品召回管理办法》及《缺陷汽车产品召回管理条例》、《食品召回管理规定》、《儿童玩具召回管理规定》、《药品召回管理办法》及《医疗器械召回管理办法》等行政规范性文件。在华外资企业的产品责任问题也要适用上述规范性文件来处理。目前,在华外资企业产品责任的法律缺陷主要体现在以下几点:第一,从政府层面,针对外资企业产品责任的立法不完善;行政执法的合法性和合理性之不足;纠纷解决的有效性之缺失。第二,从外资企业自身层面,对自身产品责任缺乏有效的法律风险防范体系。第三,从社会监督者层面,对外资企业缺乏客观公正的视角。鉴于这些法律缺陷,笔者认为政府、外资及社会媒体和消费者应该做好如下努力:第一,从政府角度,在立法方面进一步完善产品责任立法模式,在执法方面坚持惩罚与教育相结合原则,在司法方面力求多元化纠纷处理方式;第二,从外资企业自身角度,应该要建立全方位立体化体系。首先应该进一步完善内部产品质量检验体系,其次可以用产品责任保险来转移和分散风险,最后应该要建立产品责任法律风险防范体系;第三,从社会监督者角度,应该树立客观公正的监督视角即各种媒体应该客观公正地报道外资企业的产品质量问题,不能误导消费者对外资企业产生不必要的误解,而且消费者也应该树立理性消费的观念,并具备合法维护其合法权利的意识。


During the 30 years since the implementation of reform and opening up, China has absorbed tens of thousands of foreign‐invested enterprises. Most of these foreign‐invested enterprises make great contributions to China's economic and social development, in the process of strengthening themselves. However, some are questioned socially, because they are found to deal with irregular business, product defects, lackness of protection of workers’ interests, destruction of the environment and so on. So there is an increasing social requirement for the foreign enterprises to strengthen their social responsibilities, among which, product liability stands out undoubtedly and prominently. Besides, 60% of China's exported products are manufactured by the foreign‐invested enterprises, they, of course, should take the important responsibility to secure and improve product quality. The foreign‐invested enterprises in China are a Chinese legal person with Chinese nationality and also with foreign factors. In recent years, the cases on product liability of the foreign‐invested enterprises are continually occurring, which leads to the gradually increasing concern, by domestic China, on product liability of the foreign‐invested enterprises. At present, China has not made its special law, namely, Law Product Liability, to adjust the product liability. Instead, many provisions related are scattered throughout a series of normative documents. In terms of product liability of the foreign‐invested enterprises in China, in my opinion, firstly, from the government level, aim at the imperfection of legislation on product liability of the foreign‐invested enterprises, the inadequacy of the legitimacy and rationality of administrative enforcement and the lackness of effectiveness on dispute resolution; Secondly, from the enterprise level, aim at the shortness of effective prevention system of legal risk for their own product liability. Thirdly, from the social supervisor level, aim at the lackness of objective and just perspective of foreign‐invested enterprises. In views of the defects in legislation, the government, the foreign‐invested enterprises, the social medias and the consumers should take some effective counter measures.


키워드close

hina, Foreign‐invested enterprises, product quality, product liability, compensation for damage, law application