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Objective: The aim of this study is to predict human visual target search using ACT-R cognitive architecture in real scene images. Background: Human uses both the method of bottom-up and top-down process at the same time using characteristics of image itself and knowledge about images. Modeling of human visual search also needs to include both processes. Method:In this study, visual target object search performance in real scene images was analyzed comparing experimental data and result of ACT-R model. 10 students participated in this experiment and the model was simulated ten times. This experiment was conducted in two conditions, indoor images and outdoor images. The ACT-R model considering the first saccade region through calculating the saliency map and spatial layout was established. Proposed model in this study used the guide of visual search and adopted visual search strategies according to the guide. Results: In the analysis results, no significant difference on performance time between model prediction and empirical data was found. Conclusion: The proposed ACT-R model is able to predict the human visual search process in real scene images using salience map and spatial layout. Application:This study is useful in conducting model-based evaluation in visual search, particularly in real images. Also, this study is able to adopt in diverse image processing program such as helper of the visually impaired.