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16세기 말, 17세기 초 맥도날드 친족과 캠벨 친족의 갈등과 대립은 스코틀랜드 서부해안지대의 두 친족 간의 세력싸움으로 보이기도 한다. 그러니 실상 이 두 친족의 대립은 저지대 고지대의 정치적, 문화적 세력 갈등으로 볼 수 있다. 게일어 문화권과 친족 중심의 고지대는 영어와 노르만적 봉건제도 중심의 저지대로부터 정치적으로 문화적으로 독립을 유지하고자 하였고, 저지대는 고지대를 길들이고자 하였다. 저지대를 대표하는 왕실과 고지대를 대표하는 맥도날드 친족의 대립은 16세기에 들어와 왕실의 대리인의 역할을 부여받은 캠벨의 등장으로 캠벨과 맥도날드의 대립으로 나타났다. 캠벨의 흥기는 뛰어난 친족경영 덕분으로 볼 수도 있지만 왕실의 지원 없이는 불가능한 것이었다. 16세기말 17세기 국면에서 승리는 캠벨에게 돌아갔지만 캠벨은 왕실에 돌아갈 원한을 뒤집어 쓴 것이다. 이후로도 백년 이상 지속된 맥도날드와 캠벨의 갈등을 고려하면 두 친족 모두 저지대와 스코틀랜드 왕실의 피해자임을 보여주는 것이다.


The aim of this article is to examine the nature of the clan feud between the MacDonalds and the Campbells in the late 16th century Scottish western highlands. Unlike other states in the 16th century Europe which had almost completed the taming of the barbarous baronial feuds, the Scottish highlands was at the height of the clan feuds. The feuds between clans rose usually over the local issues such as struggle over a land. The feud between the MacDonalds of Islay and Antrim and the Campbells looks one of these typical clan feuds, as they fought over Kintyre and Islay. The genuine character, however, of their struggle can be found in the clash between two cultures in the 16th century Scotland. Whereas the lowlanders spoke English, lived in the feudal system, and accepted the protestant reformation, the highlanders enjoyed the gaelic culture which can be represented by the gaelic language and the clan system, and remained faithful to the catholic belief. The Stewart royal family as the master of the lowland tried to expand their royal power and the norman culture to the highlands. The MacDonalds as the Lordship of Isles tried to keep the gaelic cultural and political independence from the lowlands. We cannot understand the feud between the MacDonalds of Islay and Antrim and the Campbells without these cultural enmity between the two regions. After the collapse of the Lordship of Isles in 1493, the MacDonalds of Islay and Antrim became the champion of the Clan Donald, and attempted to restore the glory of the Lordship of Isles. However, they were divided into two clans, the MacDonalds of Duniveg and the MacDonells of Antrim in 1565, making themselves an easier target of the Royal Family and the Campbells. Although the Campbells was a highland clan, they acted as the champion of the royal family. They converted to protestantism and the clan chief was made an earl. The greedy ambition of the Campbells was fulfilled with the assistance of the royal house in the early 17th century as they acquired Kintyre and Islay. However, the genuine character of their struggle remained unchanged as they were the representatives of the two hostile cultures and powers. The genuine enemy of the MacDonalds should have been the Stuart royal family. The Campbells, however, took what the Stuart family deserved, as it was them, not the Stuarts who gave the last blow to the MacDonalds of Duniveg in the early 17th century. In a such sense, the Campbells were no less a victim of the Stuarts than the MacDonalds.