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The article considers the problems and prospects of economic development of Turkmenistan in the context of economic diversification. Also in the paper were discussed institutional priorities in the implementation of economic reforms that ensure macroeconomic and social stability. The paper analyzes the macroeconomic indicators of Turkmenistan, foreign trade and investment policy of the country, еhe economic outlook for Turkmenistan. Ensuring priority of national interests in the development and implementation of long-term development of Turkmenistan and in current economic activity means that the leading role in the implementation of innovative development of Turkmenistan assigned to the state. It is the state acts as a strategic investor in the key sectors of the economy. Diversification of the new economy can be a real alternative to the resource-based specialization of the country. Trends in the development of the national economy in the coming years are determined by demand for energy resources on the world market in the post-crisis development. Increasing economic dependence on exports of fuel and raw materials from foreign direct investment require the transition from the inertia of (raw) economic development to innovative development that meets the challenges of the XXI century.