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Amongst the various antimicrobial peptides, lysozyme plays a central role in initiating and maintaining the antibacterial defense response of insect. Here we propose the biosynthesis and refolding of recombinant lysozyme in Escherichia coli expressed in inclusion body form. The Agrius lysozyme gene was amplified using gene specific primers and then ligated into the pGEX-4T-1 vector, which contained the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene as a fusion partner. A recombinant lysozyme was expressed in E. coli Rosetta cells using a pGEX-4T-1 expression vector,and the fusion protein was induced by ioporpyl-b-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The recombinant protein produced as an inclusion body was resolubilized in solubilization buffer, and the resultant solution was dialyzed in refolding buffer. After thrombin cleavage, the recombinant lysozyme was purified by ion exchange chromatography and reverse phase chromatography. The recombinant lysozyme was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and immunoreactivity against the anti-Agrius lysozyme was observed by western blot analysis of this protein. The recombinant lysozyme displayed antibacterial activity against Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus, which was confirmed by the inhibition zone assay.