초록 close

본고는 신라의 사상과 문화가 고구려[백제]의 그것과 다른데 착안하여 그 차이의 원인이 무엇일까에 대하여 탐구하였다. 그리고 이것은 고구려[백제]가 단군[웅녀]의식을 갖고 출발한데 비해 초기 신라의 지배층이 강한 환웅[풍백]의식을 지니고 출발했기 때문이라고 보았다. 그렇다면 환웅[풍백]의식이 신라의 사상과 문화에 끼친 영향이 무엇이며, 아울러 신라적인 토양에서 발흥한 동학(東學)이 이 의식(意識)의 연맥(連脈)으로서 갖는 특징이 과연 무엇일까? 이 의식은 신라인들의 태백산 관념, 내림[下降]의식, 신라불교의 수용, 화랑풍월도의 형성에 영향을 미친 것으로 보았다. 신라문화에 끼친 영향으로는 정천(井泉)신앙, 광명숭배신앙, 새토템, 샤머니즘, 근친혼 풍습, 풍신제, 팔관회 등을 들 수 있고 아울러 유목문화가 농경문화를 주도하는 패러다임 형성에도 영향을 끼친 것으로 파악하였다. 이 의식의 연맥으로서의 동학의 특징으로는 3·7자 주문, 남녀동권의 여성관, 선교(仙敎)적 특성, 천황씨와 다시개벽 등을 들어서 설명하였다. 끝으로 본고에서는 이 의식은 환웅이야말로 우리민족의 진정한 조상임을 알려준다는데 주목하여, 이러한 의식의 계승이 갖는 현재적 의미 가운데 특히 인성교육적인 의미에 대하여 고찰하였다. 아울러 앞으로 환웅의 존재를 어떻게 효율적으로 인식시켜 나갈 것인가 등을 새로운 연구과제로서 제시하였다.


In this paper I insisted that Hwanwoong(桓雄) is the first ancestor of all korean people, not Dangun(檀君). Specially I stressed that the early Silla's people didn't know about Dangun[Wongyeo]. In this paper I would like to make reference these three points. What are the means of these insistences? If the consciousness of Hwanwoong[Pungbaek] which the early Silla's people had gave some influences on the formation of Donghak thoughts, what was it? In the future what problems we have to resolve?In relation to the first question, I will say as following : the consciousness of Hwanwoong[Pungbaek], especially that of Hwanwoong's descent which gave the great influence on Silla people's thoughts and culture during the period of Silla dynasty, had became the independent pride of Silla people. And this pride gave original energy to overcome many difficulties, and to achieve the unification of three countries. In the future if young people will make an effort to change themselves to another Hwanwoong, this will have great means at the point of the education for good personality. Because Hwanwoong is regarded as creative learder who based on the spirit of korean nation. He was regarded as the being who had the clean and active energy, too. In relation to the second question, I will say as following : Those are 'Samchiljajumun' -the idea of 'three․seven' which is based on the 'number of three․seven' in Dangun mythology-, the view about women which is based on equal rights for both sexes, the features of 'The Doctrine of Hermit(仙敎)', and Chonhwangssi(天皇氏) & DasiGaebyeok-the establishment of the new paradise on the earth which is believed as the utopia of the Donghak-. In relation to the third question, I would like to give following four problems : Why we korean people have forgotten such an important consciousness of Hwanwoong[Pungbaek] for the long time? What are the another historic datas which announce that Silla people had the consciousness of Hwanwoong[Pungbaek]? What evidences can we discover about the consciousness of Hwanwoong from Japanese thoughts and cultures?