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The anatomy and morphology of seeds from 10 Hawaiian Portulaca taxa were examined to explore patterns of variation among the taxa, and to evaluate their phylogenetic relationships. Features of seeds were assessed employing microtechnique procedures,statistical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Anatomically, the orientation of embryo was consistent across taxa, and all seeds examined had central nutritive tissue and integuments comprising the peripheral embryo. Seeds were generally small, circular to ovoid in shape, and either smooth or rough-surfaced, with tubercules. Variation in seed size was noted, although minimal within small seeded group. The size of seeds ranged from 0.50~1.26 mm in length, and 0.55~1.34 mm in width, with similar weights. Seeds were distinguished by the sculpture and arrangement of the testa epidermis and the way in which their stellulate-tessellate cells uniquely fi t together. Using a multiple range test (ANOVA), two groups were established by seed characteristics. The SEM also demonstrated morphological differences in testa sculpturing. The results obtained confi rm the usefulness of seed characteristics in the identifi cation of the species examined, and furthermore, allow for the separation of the Hawaiian Portulaca into two groups.