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Objectives: To determine the prevalence of incidental maxillary sinus findings in a large sample of orthodontic patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with a wide field of view and assess the relationships of such abnormalities with age and gender. Methods: Five hundred thirteen CBCT scans obtained for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning in a Northern Italian population (N = 513; 292 female and 221 male subjects; 1,026 maxillary sinuses) were studied. The frequencies of pseudocysts and mucosal thickening of the maxillary sinus were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of age and gender on these abnormalities. Results: Pseudocysts were detected in 52 patients (10.1%) and 59 sinuses (5.75%). Mucosal thickening was observed in 206 patients (40.1%) and 258 sinuses (25.1%). Gender and age were significantly associated with pseudocysts (p = 0.027) and mucosal thickening (p < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions: Half of the orthodontic patients had incidental maxillary sinus findings. Men were more likely to show pseudocysts, and older patients (aged 41 - 60 years) were more likely to show mucosal thickening.