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The inhibitory effects of resveratrol, a natural bioactive polyphenolic phytoalexin rich in grape, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation and its beneficial effects on dopaminergic neurodegeneration were studied. Resveratrol dosedependently suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide production and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in BV-2 microglial cells. Furthermore, resveratrol (1 μM) significantly blocked BV2microglial phagocytosis induced by LPS (0.1 μg/mL). Although the conditioned media from LPS-stimulated BV2 cells caused the SN4741 dopaminergic neuronal cell death, that from resveratrolpretreated BV2 cells did not diminish the viability of SN4741cells. These results suggest that resveratrol can prevent neuronal death possibly through the modulation of phagocytosis and microglial activation.