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The article, focusing on the period of the emperor Romanus Lecapenus, is a writing and studying the meanings of the wars between Byzantium and the Arabs in the first 10th century. By 867, the Byzantine Empire had re-stabilised its position in both the east and the west, and the efficiency of its defensive military structure enabled its emperors to begin planning wars of reconquest in the east. After the coronation of Romanus Lecapenus, he thought that the Byzantine Empire had power enough to invade Arabs. Because it had enough population, ability to send a large scale campaign, new operations and tactics, and frontier cavalry. Romanus appointed the brilliant general John Kourkouas commander of the field armies in the East. John Kourkouas subdued a rebellion in the theme of Chaldia and intervened in Armenia in 924. From 926 Kourkouas campaigned across the eastern frontier against the Abbasids and their vassals, and won an important victory at Melitene in 934. The capture of this city is often considered the first major Byzantine territorial recovery from the Muslims. John Kourkouas continued the offensive with other noteworthy victories in Mesopotamia (943): these culminated in the reconquest of Edessa (944), which was especially celebrated for the return to Constantinople of the venerated Mandylion. The byzantine campaigns against the Arabs, in the first 10th century, means conversion from defence to offence in the operations and tactics. So I presume that this conversion became a base for the Nicephorus II Phocas's campaign against the Arabs.