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Background and Objectives Ultrasonography (USG)-guided sclerotherapy using a sclerotherapic agent such as ethanol, OK-432, recently has gained popularity as a treatment for nonfunctioning benign thyroid nodules. The study evaluates the efficacy and safety of the USG-guided sclerotherapy for that purpose. Subjects and Method Included in the study were 23 patients who had complaints of applied pressure or cosmetic problems due to cystic thyroid nodules, which had been diagnosed as benign and nonfunctioning by fine-needle aspiration biopsy and thyroid function test. Sclerotherapy was performed with OK-432 or 99.9% ethanol following nearly complete evacuation of the fluid from the cystic portion of thyroid nodule. At each USG follow-up, we measured the volume of cysts, symptom scores, cosmetic scores using a visual analog scale, and related complications were examined at postoperative dates of one and six months. Results The volume of thyroid cysts were significantly reduced (p<0.01) with mean volume reduction rates of 77.3±21.2% at postoperative 6 months. The cosmetic score and symptom score were significantly improved following sclerotherapy (p<0.01). Major complications related to sclerotherapy, such as vocal cord paralysis, thyrotoxicosis and tissue necrosis, did not happen during the follow-up observation. Conclusion USG-guided sclerotherapy could be a simple and effective treatment modality for benign cystic thyroid nodules. Korean J Otorhinolaryngol-Head Neck Surg 2012;55:777-81