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Objectives: This study is performed to evaluate the salivary secretion, salivary pH and cariogenic activity in head and neck cancer patients. Methods: Thirty patients (26 male, 4 female) who had head and neck cancer and were treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and 28 normal volunteers (9 male, 19 female) as a control were included. The mean age of the patients group and control group were 55.9 years and 51.6 years, respectively. The patients group was examined of salivary secretion, salivary pH, and cariogenic activity, and was compared with the control group. Results: In comparison with the control group, salivary secretion, salivary pH and cariogenic activity were lower, significantly, in head and neck cancer patients (P<0.01). There are negative correlations between cariogenic activity and salivary secretion (r=-0.364, P<0.01), cariogenic activity and salivary pH (r=-0.534, P<0.01) in head and neck cancer patients, and cariogenic activity and salivary pH (r=-0.413,P<0.05) in the control group. There are positive correlations between salivary pH and salivary secretion (r=0.409, P<0.01) in head and neck cancer patients. Conclusions: These results suggest that salivary secretion and salivary pH are reduced; cariogenic activity is increased in head and neck cancer patients. Such salivary factor and cariogenic activity can increase the possibility of induction of dental caries.