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The pathogenicity of influenza A viruses is a multigenic trait, which is orchestrated by the global networks between eight viral genomic constituents and their cellular interacting partners. A recent report provided information on the finding of a new PA ribosomal frameshifting product, the PA-X protein, in the influenza A virus segment 3, and an endonuclease property was suggested for a possible role of the PA-X protein. In cultured cells, viral growth was not affected by the PA-X protein expression. However, the reduced pathogenicity of mice appeared to be closely associated with the PA-X protein expression. It was also revealed that the PA-X protein was able to modulate host gene expression. Considered together, the PA-X protein can be a cellular signaling modulator and subsequently control viral pathogenicity. By reviewing recent publications, we present new insights in the contribution of the PA-X protein to the cellular signaling network and the resultant viral pathogenicity.