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The objective of the study is to examine the attribution tendency, self-efficacy, and college adaptation among Korean language learners with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds and thus to provide a framework to formulate effective Korean language teaching and study materials. This study conducted questionnaire-based surveys with attendees at Korean Language Institutes, whose native languages are English, Chinese, and Japanese, respectively. The attribution tendency differs in term of external attribution. All measures for learning self-efficacy show a statistically significant difference as an important variable across the board and the Japanese attendees show the lowest self-efficacy. And all participants are shown to be different with respect to college adaptation. Based on these findings, it is needed that Korean language teaching and study measures in the field should be deliberated to cope with the learners’ linguistic backgrounds.