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Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term oncologic outcomes after concurrent chemoradiation treatment for anal cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 1979 and December 2008, the records of 50 consecutive patients with anal cancer and who were treated by chemoradiation or radiation only with a curative intent were retrospectively reviewed. The oncologic outcomes and the risk factors for recurrence were analyzed. Results: Of the 50 patients, 49 underwent concurrent chemoradiation and one underwent radiation only. After these definitive treatments, 43 (86.0%) achieved a clinical complete response. During the median follow-up of 60 months (range: 2-202 months), the 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional recurrence-free survival were 84.2%, 72.7%, and 69.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the performance status (p=0.031) and a clinical complete response (p=0.039) were the independent predictors for overall survival; lymph node involvement (p=0.031) was the only independent predictor for disease-free survival. Conclusion: The performance status and a clinical complete response may be reliable predictors of survival after chemoradiation for anal cancer. The addition of irradiation to the inguinal area may not be significantly associated with the outcomes.