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한국전쟁기 경기도 시흥군은 2개월 반 동안 북한에게 점령되었다. 시흥군의 사례를 통해 살펴본 점령기 북한의 동원정책과 배제ㆍ협력을 통한 ‘공민’ 만들기의 특징은 다음과 같다. 첫째 북한은 점령 이후 동원ㆍ포섭ㆍ협력작업을 진행하는 동시에 다른 한편으로는 감시ㆍ배제ㆍ처단을 통해 “조선민주주의인민공화국 공민 만들기”를 시도했다. 의용군은 자원­조직할당­강제동원의 방식으로 진행되었다. 8월 4일 이후 시흥군에서 강제적 의용군 징발이 실시되었는데, 대상자의 15% 정도가 선발된 반면 당ㆍ정ㆍ사회단체 간부들은 배제되었다. 둘째 점령기 주민들은 북한공민으로 강제적으로 각종 조직과 집회에 동원되었다. 특히 청년들은 점령기 가장 큰 동원대상자가 되었으며, 북한 점령 지역에서 사실 자체가 ‘부역행위’를 회피할 수 없었음을 의미했다. 시흥군 동면의 경우 총인구 1만 2천명 중 연인원 8천여 명이 조직ㆍ동원되었다. 셋째 북한은 감시ㆍ배제ㆍ처단작업을 통해 ‘반동’을 숙청했다. 시흥군 내무서는 여론ㆍ정보 수집과 반대파에 대한 사찰ㆍ감시를 진행했다. 내무서는 처단대상과 감시대상의 명단을 별도로 작성했으며, 여기에는 대상자들의 가족명단도 포함되었다. ‘공민’ 자격을 둘러싸고 포섭과 배제가 진행되었다. 넷째 북한점령은 시흥군을 포함한 남한 사회ㆍ체제를 짧은 시간 내에 급격하게 뒤흔들어 놓았다. 기성의 남한체제는 짧은 기간 동안 완전 전복되었고, 수복 이후 재복구되었다. 이러한 경험은 생사를 건 인정투쟁의 과정이었다. 점령과 수복과정을 겪으면서 북한에 대한 증오와 남한에 대한 불편함 속에서 인민ㆍ국민ㆍ주민들의 정체성은 혼란을 겪게 되었다.


According to the case study of Siheung County, which was occupied by North two and half months, North Korea mobilized human and natural resources in South Korea by forces as well as by forced-willingness and tried to change South Korean into royal North Korean people. After occupation started, the mobilization, engagement, and collaboration tactics of North Korea were adopted to use South Korean manpower and resources. They tried to make South Korean people to cooperate with the occupied regime and to exclude anti-North Korean elements from the public scene. Their purpose was to change South Korean people into royal Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) one. The newspapers and mass media argued that South Korean people volunteered the so-called Peoples Volunteer Army (PVA), increased products, and supported the North Korean Army. But the nature of PVA was compulsory and consisted of three phases, i.e., volunteer-allotment-forced recruitment. According to Siheung County, occupied regime managed the PVA candidates list in towns and villages' level, and recruited PVA by force since 4 August. In case of Dong-Myon of Siheung County, 15 percent of PVA candidates were recruited but the executive members of Labor Party, Peoples Committee, and social organizations that managed the occupied regime were all excluded. The Bodoyeonmang (National Guidance League: NGL) members who betrayed their communist belief under the auspice of South Korean government volunteered PVA and were recruited about 15 percent. The people under the occupied regime had to join the North Korea sponsored parties, social organizations, self-defense squad, fire-fighting squad, and lots of committees and had to attend the propaganda lectures, anti-American rallies, and signing campaigns to protest U.S. intervention to the Korean War. Particularly, the young people were the main target of theses mobilization by the occupied powers. The people at the age between 18 and 36 had to cooperate with the occupied regimes by force or by their willingness. Their presence during the occupation of North Korea meant that they had to cooperate with the occupied forces. Their experience of North Korean occupation as well as the Korean government's hard policy against collaborators influenced the future choice of Korean people and society. The occupied forces purged the so-called reactionaries through the police surveillance, exclusion, and execution policies. There are overt lists of political reactionaries as well as privately surveillance elements lists. The Siheung County Police Department collected public opinion as well as information and kept an eye on anti-North Korean elements. There were so many surveillance lists managed by Police Department. The Korean Government officers, members of Political Party and Social Organizations, secret agents of Korean Army and Police, and agents of U.S. Army intelligence agency were classified as the subject of severe legal punishment. The police man, military police, soldier, landowner, merchant, pastor, and land-confiscated person as well as their family were included in the surveillance lists. The qualification of loyal DPRK people lied in the arbitrary decision of occupied forces. The surveillance lists which were managed by occupied regime were used for kidnapping and killing just before the retrieval of Seoul by U.N. forces in the late September 1950. The occupation of South Korea by North Korean forces brought the rapid change in the South Korean society. There were some upheaval that made the lower classes to grasp the halls of power temporally and the upper classes to fall down to the ground. It was not just a change but companied a life-and-death struggle. The experience of North Korean system during the occupation period made South Korean people anti-Communism and loyal to Korean government, but the zero tolerance policy and aggressive attitude of South Korean government made the people nervous.