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이 연구는 노인 단독가계의 교통비, 통신비, 문화․여가활동비, 경조사․교제비 등의 사회적 참여 소비지출 수준과 구성비 수준을 알아보고, 그 영향요인을 분석하였다. 이를 위하여 국민노후보장패널조사의 3차년(2009)도 조사에 응답한 65세 이상 노인 단독가계의 가구주 706명의 자료를 사용하여 회귀분석 하였다. 주요 분석 결과는 다음과 같다. 노인 단독가계의 사회적 참여 소비지출 수준과 구성비를 비교해볼 때, 경조사․교제비 등의 소비지출 수준과 구성비 수준이 가장 높았으며, 그 다음으로는 교통비, 통신비, 문화․여가활동비 순으로 소비지출 수준과 구성비 수준이 높았다. 사회적 참여 소비지출의 경우 전반적으로 여성이 남성에 비해 더 적게 지출하여, 여성이 남성의 약 60% 수준에서 지출하고 있었다. 사회적 참여 소비지출은 정상재이며 필수재의 성격을 보였다. 즉, 교통비, 통신비, 문화․여가활동비, 경조사․교제비 등의 소득탄력성은 모두 엥겔계수보다 높고 1.0 미만이었다. 각 비목별 지출을 볼 때, 교통비 지출은 교육수준이 높을수록, 거주지역이 서울보다 도에 거주할 경우, 질환이 없는 경우 유의하게 높았으며, 통신비 지출은 연령이 적을수록, 소득이 많을수록, 부채가 많을수록 유의하게높았다. 문화․여가활동비 지출은 종교가 있는 경우, 자산이 많을수록 유의하게 높았으며, 소득과 성별의 상호작용 효과가 유의하게 나타났다. 남성의 경우 정(+)의 소득효과가 나타났으며, 여성의 경우 소득효과가 나타나지 않고 정(+)의 자산효과가 나타났다. 그리고 남성은 종교가 있는 경우, 거주지역이 서울이 아닌 광역시나 도에 거주할 경우 문화․여가활동비의 지출이 유의하게 높았다. 그리고 남성의 문화․여가활동비의 소득탄력성이 여성에 비해 훨씬 높았다. 경조사․교제비 등의 지출은 종교가 있는 경우 유의하게 높았으며, 소득과 성별의 상호작용 효과가 유의하게 나타났다. 남성은 소득이 높을수록 경조사․교제비 등이 유의하게 높았으며, 여성은 연령이 적을수록, 교육수준이 높을수록, 종교가 있을 경우, 거주지역이 서울보다 도에 거주할 경우, 소득이 높을수록, 자산이 많을수록 경조사․교제비 등이 유의하게 높은 것으로 나타났다. 전체 사회적 참여소비지출은 연령이 적을수록, 종교가 있는 경우, 자산이 많을수록 유의하게 높았으며, 소득과 성별의 상호작용의 효과가 유의하게 나타났다. 남성은 소득이 높을수록 전체 사회적 참여소비지출이 유의하게 높았고, 여성은 연령이 적을수록, 교육수준이 높을수록, 종교가 있는 경우, 거주지역이 서울보다 도에 거주하는 경우, 소득이 높을수록, 자산이 많을수록 전체 사회적 참여소비지출이 유의하게 높은 것으로 나타났다. 결국, 노인단독가계의 사회적 참여 소비지출은 성별의 영향이 확연하게 다르게 나타났다. 문화․여가활동비나 경조사․교제비 등에 있어서 남성은 소득이, 여성은 소득과 자산이 중요한 변수로 나타났다. 소득은 직업과 근로능력의 중요성을 의미하며, 자산은 가계자산관리 및 장기적인 금융소비자교육의 중요성을 의미한다. 따라서 이러한 연구결과는 성별, 연령, 교육수준, 종교유무, 거주지역, 취업여부 등의 인구학적 특성과 소득․자산․부채 수준 등의 경제적 특성을 고려한 차별화된 맞춤형 노인 단독가계의 사회적 참여 지원 시스템이 필요하며, 젊은 나이부터 노년기를 대비한 사회적 참여의 확대 및 자신의 재무 설계와 관리, 취업 관리 교육이 필요함을 시사한다.


This study examined the level and the proportion of consumption expenditures by consumption expenditure item and explored the determinants of social participation consumption expenditures of older single-person households with a focus on transportation, communication, culture and recreation, congratulatory/condolence and social expenditures, and total social participation consumption expenditures by demographic variables such as gender, age, education, having- religion, residential area and employment status, economic variables such as income, asset and debt, and health status. For this purpose, OLS regression analyses were conducted using a sample of 760 single householder aged 65 years or older in the third survey data of Korean Retirement and Income Study(KReIS 2009). Main findings can be summarized as the following:First, the level and the proportion of congratulatory/condolence and social expenditures were highest and transportation, communication, and culture and recreation were followed. Women spent less on social participation consumption expenditures than men. And women spent 60 % of men’s social participation consumption expenditures. Social participation consumption was normal good and necessary. The income elasticity of transportation, communication, culture and recreation, and congratulatory/condolence were higher than Engel’s coefficient and less than 1.0. Second, education was positively associated with transportation expenditures. Older single-person householders residing in town in province spent significantly more on transportation than those residing in Seoul. Older single-person householders who had disease spent significantly more on transportation than those who didn’t have. Third, income and debt was positively associated with communication expenditures, while age was negatively associated with communication expenditures. Fourth, religion and asset were positively associated with culture and recreation expenditures. Income and gender had a significant interaction effect on culture and recreation expenditures. Income was positively associated with culture and recreation expenditures for men and asset was positively associated with culture and recreation expenditures for women. Men having religion spent significantly more on recreation expenditures than those who did not have. Men residing in town in province spent significantly more on recreation expenditures than those residing in Seoul. And income elasticity of culture and recreation expenditures was much greater for men than for women. Fifth, older single-person householders having religion spent significantly more on congratulatory/ condolence and social expenditures than those who did not have. Income and gender had a significant interaction effect on congratulatory/condolence and social expenditures. Income was positively associated with culture and recreation expenditures for men and income and asset were positively associated with congratulatory/condolence and social expenditures for women. Age was negatively associated with congratulatory/condolence and social expenditures, while education was positively associated with congratulatory/condolence and social expenditures for women. Women having religion spent significantly more on congratulatory/condolence and social expenditures than those who did not have. Women residing in town in province spent significantly more on congratulatory/condolence and social expenditures than those residing in Seoul. Sixth, age was significantly negatively associated with the total social participation consumption expenditures, while asset was significantly positively associated with the total social participation consumption expenditures. Older single-person householders having religion spent significantly more on the total social participation consumption expenditures than those who did not have. Income and gender had a significant interaction effect on the total social participation consumption expenditures. Income was positively associated with culture and recreation expenditures for men and education, income and asset were positively associated with the total social participation consumption expenditures for women. Women having religion spent significantly more on the total social participation consumption expenditures than those who did not have. Women residing in town in province spent significantly more on the total social participation consumption expenditures than those residing in Seoul. Finally, social participation consumption expenditures older single-person householders were apparently changed by gender. Income had an effect on culture and recreation, and congratulatory/ condolence and social expenditures for men, and income and asset had an effect on culture and recreation, and congratulatory/condolence and social expenditures for women. Income has an emphasis on jobs and working capability, while asset has an emphsis on the household asset management and long term financial consumer education. Results from this study offer that customized support system differentiated by demographical characteristics such as gender, age, education, having-religion, residential area and economic characteristics such as income, asset and debt should be needed. Furthermore, it should be needed to educate their financial planning and job management, for individuals and households from young age.